**The Virtual Universe**

An abstract of my theory:

**TIME**

Time, today is defined as the measure of movement according to an order of anteriority and posteriority (numerous motus secundum prius et posterius).

In general philosophers and scientists agree in this: that the notion of time contains three distinct ideas combined into one indivisible whole. The idea of succession, the idea that time implies continuity and the concept of time represents to us a certainty, a reality, the parts of which succeed each other in a continuous manner.

It is not so important here whether this reality is purely ideal, or is realized outside of us, for we are dealing only with the concept of time.

My question: how this reality that is purely ideal, is realized outside of us?

Philosophers and scientists are divided relating to the objectivity of the concept of time.

The ancient Greek materialists regard time as a being sui generis, independent of all created things and capable of surviving the destruction of them all.

Kant regards time as completely a creation of the knowing subject.

The abstract notion of a relation of aggregated positions between the states of consciousness constitutes the notion of psychological time.

The truth is time has been a major subject of religion, philosophy and science, but defining it in a non-controversial manner applicable to all fields of study has consistently eluded the greatest scholars.

My theory will explain time in a non-controversial manner applicable to all fields of study.

Einstein explained that if time and space is measured using electromagnetic waves, then due to the constancy of the speed of light, time and space become mathematically entangled together in a certain way, named Minkowsky space.

Two years after Einstein originally proposed the theory of special relativity, Minkowski, a former professor of Einstein, presented the idea of the spacetime coordinate system.

In physics spacetime is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum.

Spacetimes are the arenas in which all physical events take place; an event is a point in spacetime specified by its time and its place and is independent of any observer.

Spacetime is a four-dimensional coordinate system containing three spatial dimensions and one time dimension.

Einstein said that all of the consequences of special relativity can be derived from examination of the Lorentz transformations.

Here are couple consequences of special relativity:

Time dilatation - the time lapse between two events is dependent on the relative speeds of the observers' reference frames.

The twin paradox - a twin who flies off in a spaceship traveling near the speed of light; when he returns he discovers that his twin has aged much more rapidly than he has.

Length contraction - the dimensions of an object as measured by one observer may differ from the results of measurements of the same object made by another observer.

The inability for matter or information to travel faster than light.

The equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^{2 }– the energy content of an object at rest with mass m equals mc^{2}.

Time dilatation

Time dilation is the phenomenon where two objects moving relative to each other (or even just a different intensity of gravitational field from each other) experience different rates of time flow.

Here are just a few ways we know time dilation actually takes place:

Clocks in airplanes click at different rates from clocks on the ground.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) has to adjust for time dilation. They have to be programmed to compensate for the time differences based on their speeds and gravitational influences.

In special relativity (far from all gravitational mass), clocks that are moving with respect to an inertial system of observation are measured to be running slower; this effect is described precisely by the Lorentz transformation.

Time dilation due to relative velocity between observers:

In the special theory of relativity, a moving clock is found to be ticking slowly with respect to the observer's clock.

This means the time measured by the clock:

t’ = t( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

t’ - the time measured by the moving clock

t - the time measured by the observer's clock

v - the relative velocity between the observer and the moving clock

c - the speed of light

The twin paradox

The twin paradox is an interesting thought experiment, involving two twins one of whom sets out on a journey into space and back. Because of the time dilation effect of relativity, the twin who left experiences a slowing down of time and will actually be much younger than the twin that stayed behind. The reason that this is considered a paradox is that Special Relativity seems to imply that either one can be considered at rest, with the other moving. It does, and it doesn't.

The confusion arises not because there are two equally valid inertial rest frames, but (here's the tricky part) because there are three. A lot of explanations of the twin paradox have claimed that it is necessary to include a treatment of accelerations, or involve General Relativity. The three inertial frames are 1) at-home twin 2) the going-away twin and 3) the coming-back twin. It doesn't make any difference that the last two are physically the same twin--they still define different inertial frames.

Length contraction

The length of an object in a moving frame will appear contracted in the direction of motion. The amount of contraction is calculated from the Lorentz transformation; the length is maximum in the frame in which the object is at rest.

l = l_{0}( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

l - the length measured by the "other" observer

l_{0 }- the length measured by the observers on reference frame

v - the speed of the object

c - the speed of light in a vacuum

If the object is moving horizontally, then it is the horizontal dimension which is contracted; there would be no contraction of the height of the object.

Time dilation due to gravitation

Gravitational time dilatation: in general relativity clocks at lower potentials in a gravitational field such as in closer proximity to a planet are found to be running slower.

Gravity feels strongest where spacetime is most curved, and it vanishes where spacetime is flat. This is the core of Einstein's theory of general relativity, which is often summed up in words as follows: matter tells spacetime how to curve, and curved spacetime tells matter how to move.

Gravitational time dilation is the effect of time passing at different rates in regions of different gravitational potential; the lower the gravitational potential, the more slowly time passes. The energy of gravitational potential (in joules) is given by mass (in kilograms) multiplied by height (in meters) multiplied by the strength of the gravitational field (in newtons per kilogram).

Because gravitational time dilation is manifested in accelerated frames of reference or, because of the equivalence principle in the gravitational field of massive objects.

The Principle of Equivalence says the gravitational field of the Earth is equivalent to a frame accelerated at g, so over a time t one builds up a velocity v = gt.

A common equation used to determine gravitational time dilation is derived from the Schwarzschild metric, which describes spacetime in the vicinity of a non-rotating massive spherically-symmetric object. The equation is:

t’ = t( 1 – 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2}

t’ – the proper time between events A and B for a slow-ticking observer within the gravitational field

t - the coordinate time between events A and B for a fast-ticking observer at an arbitrarily large distance from the massive object

G – the gravitational constant

M – the mass of the object creating the gravitational field

**My theory: Time a complex number**

Complex numbers

We will use x and y for real variables and z for complex variables. For example, the equation z = x + yi is to be understood as saying that the complex number z is the sum of the real number x and the real number y times i. In general, the x part of a complex number z = x + yi is called the real part of z; while y is called the imaginary part of z.

We can use the xy-plane to display complex numbers. We'll even call it the complex plane when we use the xy-plane that way.

When we use the xy-plane for the complex plane C, we'll call the x-axis by the name real axis, and the y-axis we'll call the imaginary axis.

Real numbers are to be considered as special cases of complex numbers; they're just the numbers x + yi when y is 0, that is, they're the numbers on the real axis.

The absolute value (or modulus or magnitude) of a complex number z = x+yi is:

r = |z| = ( x^{2} + y^{2})^{1/2}

By Pythagoras theorem r is the distance of the point representing the complex number z to the origin.

Polar or Trigonometric or Modulus-Argument forms.

Full polar form: z = r (cos(θ) + i sin(θ))

Polar form is where a complex number is denoted by the length (otherwise known as the magnitude, absolute value, or modulus) and the angle of its vector.

Euler's formula: z = r e^{iθ}

Time cannot be separated from the three dimensions of space, because the observed rate at which time passes for an object depends on the object's velocity relative to the observer and also on the strength of gravitational fields which can slow the passage of time.

The metric determines the geometry of spacetime, as well as determining the geodesics of particles and light beams. About each point (event) on this manifold coordinate charts are used to represent observers in reference frames.

The concept of spacetime combines space and time to a single abstract universe. Mathematically it is a manifold consisting of events which are described by some type of coordinate system. Three spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension are required. Dimensions are independent components of a coordinate grid needed to locate a point in a certain defined space.

An event indicates a physical situation or occurrence, located at a specific point in space and time. For example a cup breaking on the floor is an event; it occurs at a unique place and a unique time, in a given frame of reference.

In a Euclidian space the separation between two points is measured by the distance between the two points. A distance is purely spatial and is always positive. In spacetime, the separation between two events is measured by the interval between the two events, which takes into account not only the spatial separation between the events, but also their temporal separation.

A world line is a curve in spacetime which traces out the (time) history of a particle, observer or small object.

A time-like curve can be understood as one where the interval between any two infinitesimally close events on the curve is time-like.

You learned, we saw until now that time is a real number and has one dimension.

I considered time as a complex number having a real part and an imaginary part.

The real time is the time is the time in our universe; it is the time measured by your clock, by the atomic clocks…Einstein in the Relativity theory is using the real time.

The imaginary time is the clock of the Virtual (Imaginary) Universe.

How I came at this conclusion that time is a complex number?

The observed rate at which time passes for an object depends on the object's velocity relative to the observer and also on the strength of gravitational fields which can slow the passage of time. I defined this one the real time.

When the real time is changing the virtual (imaginary) time is changing too but in opposite direction, in the Virtual (Imaginary) universe.

My idea: when the time and the length of object are changing in our universe, like a conservation law in the Virtual universe the time and the length for that object will change in opposite direction.

I define time (the absolute time) as a complex number: z = x + yi

From Special Relativity we know:

x – is the real time in our Real universe

x = t( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

Nothing changed until now.

But the imaginary time:

y – is the imaginary time

y = t(v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

How you can see the imaginary time is proportional with the energy of the object mv^{2 }.

More speed, more energy has an object, a system in the Real universe, the real time will decrease and the imaginary time in the Virtual universe will increase. This means more Events will experience the object, the system in the Virtual universe.

The polar form of time: z = t (cos(θ) + i sin(θ))

Where cos(θ) = x / t this means: cos(θ) = t( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} / t = ( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

sin(θ) = y / t this means: sin(θ) = t(v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} / t = (v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} = v / c

|z| = ( x^{2} + y^{2})^{1/2} = t (1 – v^{2} / c^{2} + v^{2} / c^{2})^{1/2} = t

This means time as complex number: z = t(( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} + i(v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2})

The energy E = mc^{2}

If e = 2( m v^{2} / 2) we have:

z = t((1 – e / E)^{ 1/2} + i(e / E )^{1/2}) this is time depending of energy.

If a = (e / E )^{1/2} we have:

z = t((1 – a^{2})^{ 1/2} + ia)

_{0}*((1 – a^{2})^{ 1/2} + i*a)

_{0} – is the absolute time; a = v / c

From General Relativity we know:

t’ = t( 1 – 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2}

My theory: time is a complex number: z = x + yi

x – is the real time in our Real universe

x = t( 1 – 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2}

y – is the imaginary time

y = t( 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2}

The polar form of time: z = t (cos(θ) + i sin(θ))

Where: cos(θ) = x / t this means: cos(θ) = t( 1 – 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2} / t = ( 1 – 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2}

sin(θ) = y / t this means: sin(θ) = t( 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2} / t = ( 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2}

z = t(( 1 – 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2} + i( 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2})

The lower the gravitational potential, the more slowly time passes in the Real universe, but in the Virtual universe the time passes faster. This means more Events will experience the object, the system in the Virtual universe.

The formula for the escape velocity from a spherical object like a moon, planet, or star, is

v^{2} = 2GM/r

This means: z = x + yi

x = t( 1 – 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2} = t( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

y = t( 2GM / (rc^{2}))^{1/2} = t(v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

The principle of equivalence say gravitation is (locally) equivalent to acceleration; higher gravitation means higher acceleration, means higher speed what means higher energy.

Now I can explain the Twin paradox: for the twin who experience the acceleration and high speed the time runs slower (time dilation).

My theory is important for quantum mechanics where the particles have high speed.

Because we have a Virtual time we have a Virtual space, a Virtual universe:

I define length a complex number: z = r (cos(θ) + i sin(θ))

From Special Relativity we know:

The real length, real dimension: l = l_{0}( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

Where: r = l_{0}

_{ }cos(θ) = l_{0}( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} / l_{0} = ( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

sin(θ) = l_{0}( v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} / l_{0} = ( v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

In the same way we have length as complex number:

The equation of space:

‘ l = l_{0}*((1 – a^{2})^{ 1/2} + i*a) where l_{0} – is the absolute length; a = v / c ‘ Adrian Ferent

More speed, energy has an object, a system in the Real universe, the real length will decrease and the imaginary length in the Virtual universe will increase. This means more Events will experience the object, the system in the Virtual universe.

**Mass** as a complex number in my theory:

m = m_{r} + m_{i} = m_{0}( 1 / ( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} + i( – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} / ( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2})

_{r} – the real mass

m_{i} – the virtual mass

_{0}( 1 / ( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} – (v / c) / ( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2})

This means the virtual mass is a negative mass and this is a proof for Dark energy.

In theoretical physics, negative mass is a hypothetical concept of matter whose mass is of opposite sign to the mass of the normal matter.

But if one object has negative mass, the objects with negative mass M will be repelled by the object with positive mass m:

F = - G(M*m)/r^2

where r as the distance between the two objects and G as the gravitational constant.

Dark energy is a form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe (Nobel Prize this year).

Dark energy currently accounts for 73% of the total mass-energy of the universe.

**I can fly to planet Jupiter in less than 1 hour:**

My equation is very important:

m = m_{0}( 1 / ( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2} – (v / c) / ( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2})

m = m_{0 }( 1 – v / c) / ( 1 – v^{2} / c^{2} )^{1/2}

m = m_{0 }( 1 – v / c )^{1/2} /_{ }( 1 + v / c )^{1/2}

This equation is very important because is the first proof that we can travel close to the speed of light.

All the theories until now explained that close to the speed of light the mass of the spaceship, rocket ship… will be infinite.

My equation demonstrates that close to the speed of light the mass of the spaceship will be close to zero. The secret is this equation connecting the mass and the negative mass.

That is why the UFOs can move in any direction very fast; it is a lot of Dark energy in the universe.

This means I can fly to planet Jupiter in less than one hour.

**I can proclaim myself the owner of the planets Mars, Jupiter, Neptune…because I discovered the way to go there.**

**Time travel**

With my equation I am certain that time travel to the future is possible.

It might come as a surprise to you that traveling forward in time is easier than back in time.

Of course, getting to the future by high speed space travel does not require the future to be already out there waiting for you. What it means is that you move out of everyone else’s time frame and into one in which time moves more slowly.

To you, time is going by at its normal rate on the rocket and if you were able to look out of the window you would, paradoxically, see the time outside going by more slowly!

So your rocket clock, traveling to Jupiter at very high speed, had measured two hours while all Earthbound clocks had counted off forty years.

How can this be? Can time really slow down inside your rocket due to its high speed? If so, this means that, for all intents and purposes, you will have leapt forty years into the future!

While you are in this state, time outside is ticking by more quickly and the future is unfolding at high speed. When you rejoin your original time frame you will have reached the future more quickly than everyone else.

This means after two hours flight to Jupiter you will find your children older than you!

**Conclusions:**

We are living in 2 universes: the Real universe and the Virtual universe.

Until now you learned only about the Real universe because the science defines only the real time and the real space.

The equation of time:

‘ t = t_{0}*((1 – a^{2})^{ 1/2} + i*a) where: t_{0} – is the absolute time; a = v / c ’ Adrian Ferent

Your clocks, the atomic clocks…show the real time.

My theory is important for quantum mechanics where the particles have high speed.

We are moving between buildings. When we are inside a big church, inside a pyramid… we experience a lower gravitational potential and the more slowly time passes in the Real universe, but in the Virtual universe the time passes faster. This means more Events will experience the object, we as a system in the Virtual universe.

Now you understand why people in the past built big temples, churches…because they ‘felt’, they ‘realized’ that the gravitational potential influence the time flow and the number of Events experienced by them. They experienced more Events: in the Virtual universe.

That is why the saints were living in caves to experience more spiritual Events in the Virtual universe.

From here we can come to a huge number of conclusions related to religions, to spirituality, afterlife…

The time has been a major subject of religion, philosophy and science, but defining it in a non-controversial manner applicable to all fields of study has consistently eluded the greatest scholars.

With my theory I am certain that time travel to the future is possible.

My theory explains time in a non-controversial manner applicable to all fields of study.